[29] Odontocetes send out high-frequency clicks from an organ known as a melon. This mode of reproduction produces few offspring, but increases the survival probability of each one. [81] Remaining sperm whale populations are large enough so that the species' conservation status is vulnerable, rather than endangered. [95][96][97][98], Currently, no international convention gives universal coverage to all small whales, although the International Whaling Commission has attempted to extend its jurisdiction over them. [72] Males typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years, making them polygynous. Once hunted for their products, cetaceans are now protected by international law. So, we invite you to join us in this article, to know about the different types of whales that exist in the world. Gillnetting and Seine netting are significant causes of mortality in cetaceans and other marine mammals. It nevertheless referred to the porpoise as a fish. Aristotle, however, could already see many physiological and anatomical similarities with the terrestrial vertebrates, such as blood (circulation), lungs, uterus, and fin anatomy. The harbor porpoise is one of the most accessible species for early cetologists, because it could be seen very close to land, inhabiting shallow coastal areas of Europe. [91] Porpoises are commonly entangled in fishing nets. Modern whales may be divided into two subgroups: the Odontoceti (toothed whales) and the Mysticeti (baleen whales). [52]:43–55 A study in the Galápagos found that squid from the genera Histioteuthis (62%), Ancistrocheirus (16%), and Octopoteuthis (7%) weighing between 12 and 650 grams (0.026 and 1.433 lb) were the most commonly taken. [52]:144, All whales are carnivorous and predatory. The Odontoceti or … One exception is with the sperm whale, which has males larger than the females. This blubber can help with buoyancy, protection to some extent as predators would have a hard time getting through a thick layer of fat, energy for fasting during leaner times, and insulation from the harsh climates. They have well-developed hearing, that is well adapted for both air and water, so much so that some can survive even if they are blind. These remains suggest skull morphology, which is very similar to that of the strap-toothed beaked whale. This milk contains high amounts of fat which is meant to hasten the development of blubber; it contains so much fat, it has the consistency of toothpaste. Eyes of these cetaceans are quite small for their body size since they primarily perceive the environment through their sense of hearing. In comparison the second largest toothed whale is Baird’s beaked whale which can grow to lengths of just over 40 ft. Dolphins communicate with whistle-like sounds produced by vibrating connective tissue, similar to the way human vocal cords function,[26] and through burst-pulsed sounds, though the nature and extent of that ability is not known. [59] Battles between sperm whales and giant squid or colossal squid have never been observed by humans; however, white scars are believed to be caused by the large squid. Squalodon featured several commonalities with modern Odontocetes. [6], The adaptation of echolocation and enhanced fat synthesis in blubber occurred when toothed whales split apart from baleen whales, and distinguishes modern toothed whales from fully aquatic archaeocetes. [Toothed_Whale_and_Baleen_Whale_Physical_Characteristics_it.svg imatge en italià] original images |Date=2009: 12:00, 1 June 2009: 1,129 × 1,517 (143 KB) Amadalvarez (talk | contribs) ... [Toothed_Whale_and_Baleen_Whale_Physical_Characteristics_it.svg imatge en italià] original images |Date=2009: You cannot overwrite this file. What do spade-toothed beaked whales … [83] Despite the controversial nature of the hunt resulting in international criticism, and the possible health risk that the often polluted meat causes,[84] thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year. Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an encephalisation quotient that can be used as another indication of animal intelligence. [113], In 2013, SeaWorld's treatment of killer whales in captivity was the basis of the movie Blackfish, which documents the history of Tilikum, a killer whale captured by SeaLand of the Pacific, later transported to SeaWorld Orlando, which has been involved in the deaths of three people. [39] This behaviour is passed on from mother to daughter, and it is only observed in 54 female individuals. [16], Breathing involves expelling stale air from their one blowhole, forming an upward, steamy spout, followed by inhaling fresh air into the lungs. The first whalers believed that it was the seminal fluid of the whale and, consequently, named them Sperm Whale. The research on other species done so far has yielded varied outcomes and inconclusive results. Brainstorm some differences between the two. [23], Toothed whale eyes are relatively small for their size, yet they do retain a good degree of eyesight. [16][21], Most toothed whales are adapted for diving to great depths, porpoises are one exception. Polar bear attacks on belugas and narwhals are usually successful in winter, but rarely inflict any damage in summer. There are two families of whales the Mysticetes (mustache whales) and the Odontocetes, the toothed whales. Odontocetes: There are two families of odontocetes distinguished by the shape of […] Spade-toothed whales are so called due to a part of their tooth, emerging from the gum and reminding the tip of a flensing spade, which was commonly used by whalers in the 19th century. Like most active predators, they have large brains and in fact, the sperm whale has the largest brain of any animal on the planet. Odontocetes & Mysticetes Cetaceans are animals that were amphibious who came back into the water. Delphinidae: information (1) Delphinidae: pictures (59) Species Inia geoffrensis Amazon river dolphin. The large auditory bulla is formed only from the ectotympanic bone. [40], Self-awareness is seen, by some, to be a sign of highly developed, abstract thinking. [66], For most of the smaller species of dolphins, only a few of the larger sharks, such as the bull shark, dusky shark, tiger shark, and great white shark, are a potential risk, especially for calves. In water, a whale can see around 10.7 m (35 ft) ahead of itself, but they have a smaller range above water. As the name implies the strap/long-toothed whale is largely known for its two long teeth that erupt from the lower jaw. Toothed whales: Are generally smaller than baleen whales, although there are some exceptions (e.g., the sperm whale and Baird's beaked... Are active predators and have teeth that they use to catch their prey and swallow it whole. [52]:79 They feed on several species, notably the giant squid, but also the colossal squid, octopuses, and fish like demersal rays, but their diet is mainly medium-sized squid. In species that live near the poles, the blubber can be as thick as 11 in (28 cm). I had this idea to make an illustration that shows how odontoceti (Toothed) whales evolved over time and looking at the changes in their skeleton, muscles, and fully restored form. While this particular study has not been repeated since then, dolphins have since "passed" the mirror test. There are only 14 baleen whale species and they are generally larger than the 76 species of toothed whales – except for the mighty sperm whale, the largest toothed whale. Sperm whales have several specialized physical characteristics that aid in this predatory behavior. Whale watching has become a form of tourism around the world. [62] Groups even attack larger cetaceans such as minke whales, gray whales, and rarely sperm whales or blue whales. [112] In April 2014, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia denied an appeal by SeaWorld. These whales are found worldwide. In the past, whalers have sought out the Sperm whale for the valuable spermaceti oil, which makes an extremely fine lubricant. [16] Except for the sperm whale, most toothed whales are smaller than the baleen whales. Suborder Odontoceti toothed whales. Since they are unable to go onto land to calve, they deliver their young with the fetus positioned for tail-first delivery. [94] Environmentalists speculate that advanced naval sonar endangers some whales. [61] To subdue and kill whales, orcas continuously ram them with their heads; this can sometimes kill bowhead whales, or severely injure them. Toothed whales are fast swimmers in comparison to seals, which typically cruise at 5–15 knots, or 9–28 km/h (5.6–17.4 mph); the sperm whale, in comparison, can travel at speeds of up to 35 km/h (22 mph). Also, two common/bottlenose hybrids reside in captivity: one at Discovery Cove and the other at SeaWorld San Diego. [109] Tilikum had been associated with the deaths of two people previously. Porpoises, dolphins, beaked whales, and sperm whales are characterized as toothed whales by the presence of teeth rather than baleen. [46] Bottlenose dolphins have a strong memory when it comes to these signature whistles, as they are able to relate to a signature whistle of an individual they have not encountered for over twenty years. These legendary animals have two teeth. These flippers contain four digits. These mammals belong to the order of Cetacea. ... they share the same characteristics only found in cetaceans. These whistles are used in order for dolphins to communicate with one another by identifying an individual. Modeling: Introduce the terms baleen whale and toothed whale. [48][49][50][51], Sperm whales can produce three specific vocalisations: creaks, codas, and slow clicks. Individual members then take turns plowing through the ball, feeding on the stunned fish. With more than 70 species including sperm whales, beaked whales, killer whale, dolphins, etc. [2][3], Toothed whales, as well as baleen whales, are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulates). [60], The killer whale is known to prey on numerous other toothed whale species. One of the main features of their ovarian cycles is the length of the luteal phase (see Harrison, 1969). They also have glands on the eyelids and outer corneal layer that act as protection for the cornea. Toothed whales range in size from the 4.5 ft (1.4 m) and 120 lb (54 kg) vaquita to the 20 m (66 ft) and 55 t (61-short-ton) sperm whale. It is typically used when homing in on prey. The cost of dedicated surveys on chartered research vessels is generally prohibitive in terms of carrying out regular surveys. [99][100], Numerous organisation are dedicated to protecting certain species that do not fall under any international treaty, such as the Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita,[101] and the Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology (for the Yangtze finless porpoise). Suborder Odontoceti toothed whales. However, it is thought unlikely that squalodontids are direct ancestors of living dolphins. [32] These signature whistles are developed during a dolphin's first year; it continues to maintain the same sound throughout its lifetime. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the... Encyclopedia / Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises [52]:43–55 Some prey may be taken accidentally while eating other items. The narwhal is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large “tusk” from a protruding canine tooth. The two groups are thought to have diverged around 34 million years ago (mya). One example is the false killer whale. Hunting for sperm whales during this period was a notoriously dangerous affair for the crews of the 19th-century whaleboats. There is a large organ inside the head of the sperm whale, which is called the spermaceti organ. They also appear to enjoy biting the vortex rings, so that they burst into many separate bubbles and then rise quickly to the surface. Whales are also affected by marine pollution. Dolphins are able to communicate to one another by addressing another dolphin through mimicking their whistle. This was due to a change in the climate of the southern oceans that affected where the environment of the plankton that these whales ate. The sperm whale is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. [89] Part of this footage was, amongst others, shown on CNN. This alone claimed an unsustainably high death toll and for 86% of all toothed whale species, entanglement and death in gillnets, traps, weirs, purse seines, longlines and trawls poses a major risk. Whistle repertoire analysis of the short beaked Common Dolphin, "Coastal Stock(s) of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin: Status Review and Management Proceedings and Recommendations from a Workshop held in Beaufort, North Carolina, 13 September 1993 – 14 September 1993", "A review of killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: predation to co-existence", "Predation of Belugas and Narwhals by Polar Bears in Nearshore Areas of the Canadian High Arctic", "Dolphins' "Remarkable" Recovery from Injury Offers Important Insights for Human Healing", "Analyses of ovarian activity reveal repeated evolution of post-reproductive lifespans in toothed whales", "The status of natural resources on the high seas", "A Review of Cetaceans from Waters off the Arabian Peninsula", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41755A10554884.en, "The RMS – A Question of Confidence: Manipulations and Falsifications in Whaling", "Guidance for identifying populations at risk from mercury exposure", "Why more than 15,000 dolphins have been killed in Solomon Islands drive hunts", "Dolphin slaughter film a hit at Sundance", "Persistent organic pollutants in the marine food chain", "Elements of beaked whale anatomy and diving physiology and some hypothetical causes of sonar-related stranding", Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora, Fauna, "Conservation of the Baiji: No Simple Solution", "Orcas in Captivity - A look at killer whales in aquariums and parks", "Poll Reveals Americans Oppose Keeping Orcas in Captivity for Public Display", "Why killer whales should not be in captivity", "Near Death At SeaWorld: Worldwide Exclusive Video", "SeaWorld trainer killed by killer whale", "Secretary of Labor, Complainant v. SeaWorld of Florida - Decision and Order", "Killer whales: Court weighs lifting ban on trainer-orca contact", "In the Wake of Blackfish -- Is it Time to Retire the Last Killer Whale Whose Capture Was Shown in the Film? The Evolution of Toothed Whales (Skeletal Study) 2017. [43] They showed dolphins real-time footage of themselves, recorded footage, and another dolphin. In the past, whalers have sought out the Sperm whale for the valuable spermaceti oil, which makes an extremely fine lubricant. While the animals of Antarctica include the iconic Killer Whale, the Orca is not the only toothed whale in the Antarctic. The killing of the animals used to be done by slitting their throats, but the Japanese government banned this method, and now dolphins may officially only be killed by driving a metal pin into the neck of the dolphin, which causes them to die within seconds according to a memo from Senzo Uchida, the executive secretary of the Japan Cetacean Conference on Zoological Gardens and Aquariums. Sperm whaling in the 18th century began with small sloops carrying only a pair of whaleboats (sometimes only one). [55] Coralling is a method where dolphins chase fish into shallow water to catch them more easily. This, however, means less room around the breathing hole as the ice slowly closes the gap. The name is a reference to the white liquid contained in the spermaceti organ which is situated in the dorsal section of the head. Killer whales are well known for their performances in shows, but the number kept in captivity is very small, especially when compared to the number of bottlenose dolphins, with only 44 captives being held in aquaria as of 2012. In Shark Bay, a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins put sponges on their beak to protect them from abrasions and sting ray barbs while foraging in the seafloor. For the most part toothed whales are smaller than their baleen whale counterparts with the largest of the toothed whale family, the sperm whale, growing to lengths of up to 67 ft. and weighing over 45 tons. In the 19th-century stubby, square-rigged ships (and later barks) dominated the fleet, being sent to the Pacific (the first being the British whaleship Emilia, in 1788),[76] the Indian Ocean (1780s), and as far away as the Japan grounds (1820) and the coast of Arabia (1820s), as well as Australia (1790s) and New Zealand (1790s).[77][78]. Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales) 69 species in 6 families. These whales are found worldwide. It lacks a dorsal fin and has a medium size among cetaceans, with an average length in adults ranging between 4 and 4.5 m and … [32] Even gaping wounds restore in such a way that the animal's body shape is restored, and infection of such large wounds are rare.[68]. Whales are very interesting and fascinating marine species, replete of characteristics that worth learning. Cetaceans are grouped into two taxonomic suborders: the baleen whales (Mysticeti) and the toothed whales (Odontoceti). File:Toothed Whale and Baleen Whale Physical Characteristics it.svg. This species is adapted to live in the Arctic and feeds on seabed animals. [47] Research done on signature whistle usage by other dolphin species is relatively limited. Toothed whales are usually active feeders that mainly depend on fish. They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. Spade-toothed beaked whale is currently an insufficiently explored species, since the animal has never been seen in the wild. Determinants of echolocation click frequency characteristics in small toothed whales: recent advances from anatomical information. Main Points: There are 2 “sub-orders” of cetaceans: odontocetes and mysticetes. These small cetaceans are more often than not kept in theme parks, such as SeaWorld, commonly known as a dolphinarium. In recent years, the video has also become widespread on the internet and was featured in the animal welfare documentary Earthlings, though the method of killing dolphins as shown in this video is now officially banned. In whales, and other marine mammals, no great difference exists between the outer and inner environments. ", "Martina McBride, 38 Special, cancel SeaWorld gig over 'Blackfish, "SeaWorld Tries to Combat Animal Abuse Allegations", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toothed_whale&oldid=991516418, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2016, Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 13:43. In 2009, a critical documentary on the hunts in Japan titled The Cove was released and shown amongst others at the Sundance Film Festival. Odontocetes feed largely on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on mammals, such as pinnipeds. As the name suggests toothed whale are born with teeth and are generally considered the hunters of the cetacean family as species such as the killer whale and sperm whale are known to be aggressive hunters and many of the species are known to hunt in cooperative groups or teams to isolate and capture their prey. The cetaceans comprise the toothed whales, dolphins, and porpoises (Odontoceti) and the baleen or whalebone whales (Mysticeti). Paul Kenyon (2004), reporter for the BBC. They have a dark, brownish-grey … ... Where do spade-toothed beaked whales live? Most other toothed whales are considerably smaller in stature and weight. Their skulls have small eye orbits, long beaks (with the exception sperm whales), and eyes placed on the sides of their heads. A commonly reported tactic was for the whale to invert itself and violently thrash the surface of the water with its fluke, flipping and crushing nearby boats. "Sponge Carrying by Dolphins (Delphinidae, "The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (, "Brainy Dolphins Pass the Human 'Mirror' Test", "Marine Mammal vocalizations: language or behavior? Skulls of Squalodon show evidence for the first hypothesized appearance of echolocation. The neocortex of many species of dolphins is home to elongated spindle neurons that, prior to 2007, were known only in hominids. This is among the findings of a report published today by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals under the UN Environment Programme (UNEP/CMS). [79] By 1880, it had declined an estimated 29%. This prevents the calf from drowning either upon or during delivery. The melon size varies between species, the bigger it is, the more dependent they are on it. They can produce isovaleric acid from branched chain fatty acids (BCFA). [37], Dolphins are known to engage in complex play behaviour, which includes such things as producing stable underwater toroidal air-core vortex rings or "bubble rings". Flipper movement is continuous. As the scope and size of the fleet increased, so did the rig of the vessels change, as brigs, schooners, and finally ships and barks were introduced. Distribution and abundance data on cetaceans, particularly those occurring predominantly offshore, are generally difficult to collect. [56][57] The shape of the snout may correlate with tooth number and thus feeding mechanisms. Toothed whale biosonar clicks are amongst the loudest sounds made by marine animals. The head of the sperm whale is filled with a waxy liquid called spermaceti. [45] An auditory experience influences the whistle development of each dolphin. These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. [18] Not all species are believed to use their teeth for feeding. The healing process is rapid and even very deep wounds do not cause dolphins to hemorrhage to death. ", "Dolphins keep lifelong social memories, longest in a non-human species". This melon consists of fat, and the skull of any such creature containing a melon will have a large depression. Whales lessen the chance of predation by gathering in groups. High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are high in the food chain. The head of toothed whales is not usually symmetrical, and there is only a limited connection of the two hemispheres of the brain. Humpback whales can measure up to 52 feet in length, and weight between 30 and 50 tons, although these anatomical aspects vary a little bit, depending on the area where they inhabit. Pilot whale, (genus Globicephala), either of two species of small, slender toothed whales of the dolphin family Delphinidae. The sperm whale is a type of toothed whale, which can reach up to 18 meters in lenght. They are one of two living groups of cetaceans, the other being the baleen whales (Mysticeti), which have baleen instead of teeth. [38] Dolphins have also been known to use tools. The click rate increases when approaching an object of interest. The strap-toothed whale is a marine mammal and belongs to the cetacean family, which is composed of all species of whale, dolphin and porpoise. They have fundic and pyloric chambers. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands, the Faroe Islands, Peru, and Japan, the most well-known practitioner of this method. [16], Brain size was previously considered a major indicator of the intelligence of an animal. [4] Several species have sexual dimorphism, with the females being larger than the males. ... We review interspecific information on the characteristics of click frequencies and data from computed tomography scans and morphology of the sound‐producing … Self-awareness, though not well-defined scientifically, is believed to be the precursor to more advanced processes like metacognitive reasoning (thinking about thinking) that are typical of humans. Dolphins are known to use this method during hunting. [16][17], Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. In fact, Antarctica and the surrounding Antarctic region is home to three species of toothed whale, each with unique characteristics and features. Dolphins tend to travel in pods, in which the groups of dolphins range from two to 1000. To feed the newborn, toothed whales, being aquatic, must squirt the milk into the mouth of the calf. The spout only forms when warm air from the lungs meets cold air, so it does not form in warmer climates, as with river dolphins. [22], Cetaceans have two flippers on the front, and a tail fin. Specific characteristics like colouration are unknown. Small odontocetes, mainly dolphins, are kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks. [69] Females deliver a single calf, with gestation lasting about a year, dependency until one to two years, and maturity around seven to 10 years, all varying between the species. [67] Dolphins can tolerate and recover from extreme injuries (including shark bites) although the exact methods used to achieve this are not known. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance equalizer between the outside air's low impedance and the cochlear fluid's high impedance. As the name depicts, toothed whales have teeth in their mouth. The Sperm whale is named so because of the Spermaceti organ which occupies most of its huge head. [42], Dolphins are capable of making a broad range of sounds using nasal airsacs located just below the blowhole. Toothed whales (Odontocetes), a parvorder of Cetacea which consists of at least 71 species, including sperm whales, killer whales, porpoises and dolphins, have acquired an astonishing type of sensing mechanism, called echolocation or bio sonar. E-mail address: mika.kuroda@fish.hokudai.ac.jp. [88], Since much of the criticism is the result of photos and videos taken during the hunt and slaughter, it is now common for the final capture and slaughter to take place on site inside a tent or under a plastic cover, out of sight from the public. Almost 90% of all types of whale, dolphin and porpoise are toothed whales and most of them are small dolphins and porpoises; a notable exception is the largest of all toothed whales, the sperm whale who is an honorary ‘great whale’. This is among the findings of a report published today by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals under the UN Environment Programme (UNEP/CMS). They are easily identified from others whales,due to the hump they have on their dorsal fins. [14], Toothed whales have torpedo-shaped bodies with inflexible necks, limbs modified into flippers, nonexistent external ear flaps, a large tail fin, and bulbous heads (with the exception of sperm whales). In addition to whales the toothed whale suborder also consists of all species of dolphin and porpoise. The cetaceans of the temperate waters of western Europe (Bay of Biscay and English Channel) have been the focus of opportunistic ferry surveys since the mid-1990s. The Evolution of Toothed Whales (Skeletal Study) 2017. Instead of sound passing through the outer ear to the middle ear, whales receive sound through the throat, from which it passes through a low-impedance, fat-filled cavity to the inner ear. The clicks are directional and are used for echolocation, often occurring in a short series called a click train. Sound pulses are emitted through their melon-shaped foreheads, reflected off objects, and retrieved through the lower jaw. [82], Dolphins and porpoises are hunted in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. The killer whale or “Orca” is a cetacean of the family “Odontocete” that groups every toothed marine mammal, just like dolphins.In fact, they belong to the same family, being the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family in the world. Note: Although the sperm whale can grow up to 67 ft. long most sperm whales measure in at between 49 – 60 ft. long. ACCOBAMS protects all whales in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Overall, they tend to be dwarfed by their relatives, the baleen whales (Mysticeti). Being mammals, they have mammary glands used for nursing calves; they are weaned around 11 months of age. Besides whaling and drive hunting, they also face threats from bycatch and marine pollution. One major threat to toothed whales world wide is entanglement in fishing gear. Th… Whales occasionally feature in literature and film, as in the great white sperm whale of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. [92] They can also be poisoned by swallowing litter, such as plastic bags. [16][21], Toothed whales have also evolved the ability to store large amounts of wax esters in their adipose tissue as an addition to or in complete replacement of other fats in their blubber. Some scientists suggest that sonar may trigger whale beachings, and they point to signs that such whales have experienced decompression sickness. Toothed whales are fully aquatic creatures, which means their birth and courtship behaviours are very different from terrestrial and semiaquatic creatures. Various species of toothed whale are known to eat everything from numerous species of fish, squid, octopus and crustaceans to marine animals such as sharks, penguins, seals and sea lions, as well as other cetaceans such as whales, dolphins and porpoises (primarily hunted by killer whales).

toothed whale characteristics

Desert Texture Blender, Eucalyptus Urophylla Adalah, Louisville Slugger 14 Inch Glove, Steak And Shake Nutella Milkshake, Panda Helper Ios 14, The Art Of Cooking Pdf, Lipscomb Graduate Admissions,