Seventy individual trees of Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the study area based on purposive sampling. Increment borer was used to collect core samples of tree trunk from each tree at breast height with relatively minor injury to the tree. Accordingly, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata, were selected for the study. %PDF-1.6 %���� The raw data of the study are available upon request from the corresponding author. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. They have elongated tips but these often brea… Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of rivers. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. The model bias value and the model efficiency values for Rhizophora mucronata were −0.002563323 and 0.7665, respectively. 11 29' 08.0'' N;Long. However, considering the current global warming conditions in the world, it is important to consider the carbon sequestration capacity of the selected species for replantation as the mangrove plants are considered to be excellent carbon dioxide removers from the atmosphere [11, 12]. The mean stem carbon content at the lowest diameter class was significantly lower than the other diameter classes. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to construct an allometric equation for the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. It ranged from 0.41 to 8.75 m respectively in 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations (Table 1). However, there is no consensus on the contribution of old trees to carbon storage due to lack of long-term individual tree data [16]. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. Measured and predicted stem carbon content of, Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of, Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Forestry Research, Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class (%), C. Giri, E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen et al., “Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data,”, W. Giesen, S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, “Mangrove guidebook for southeast Asia,”, A. E. Schwarzbach and R. E. Ricklefs, “Systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae, and intergeneric relationships within Rhizophoraceae, based on chloroplast DNA, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology,”, J. Kumar, M. E. Vijey Kumar, K. B. Ranjanna et al., “Ecological benefits of mangrove,”, N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly, “Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove-microbe-soil relations,” in, D. M. Alongi and P. Dixon, “Mangrove primary production and above-and below-ground biomass in Sawi Bay, southern Thailand,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change,”, K. Dhanwantri, P. Sharma, S. Mehta, and P. Prakash, “Carbon sequestration, its methods and significance,”, D. Murdiyarso, J. Purbopuspito, J. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the major predictors of stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The Archimedes displacement principle was used to measure the initial volume of the collected core samples. Rep., U.S. Agency for International Development, Program in Science and Technology Cooperation, Washington, DC, USA, 1990, Interim Report. The best fitted model was used to estimate the stem carbon content of reserved 25% of trees. Qualitative assessment of vegetation structure often uses species richness, plant height and apparent zonation of … Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, and they have a considerable contribution of carbon dioxide mitigation. Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. Under these conditions Rhizophora mangle is able to reach a height of up to 35 meters but usually stops between 10 to 20 meters. The mangrove species (Rhizophora mucronata Poir.) Subscribe today. Growth rate of R. mucronata showed variations on absolute daily height growth rate range of 0.215-3.333 mm/day (average 1.296 0.036 mm/day), while absolute daily diameter growth rate range was 2.15x10-3-0.196 mm/day (average 4.25x10-2 3.59x10-2 mm/day). In model B, DBH (VIF = 1) showed a good fit for the model (R2 = 76.7%) (Table 4). The fixed stem carbon biomass of all the core samples was determined by loss on the ignition method as described by Guendehou and Leehtonen [14]. The values within parentheses indicate the range of variation of the measured and predicted stem carbon content. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective of using a nondestructive method to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in conserved tropical mangrove ecosystems. The reserved 25% of data were used for model validation. However, the carbon sequestration potential of Rhizophora mucronata is not widely researched in the tropical mangrove ecosystems. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. Two models (Model A and Model B) were constructed from the stepwise regression with backward elimination method: Model A: Ln C = −1.545–2.122 Ln TH + 2.020 Ln MSH + 0.874 Ln CH + 2.011 Ln DBH Model B: Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBHHere, C: stem carbon content, TH: total height, MSH: merchantable stem height, CH: crown height, and DBH: diameter at breast height. The actively growing trees can store more carbon in their stem. The mean DBH, stem height, merchantable stem height, crown height leaf area and the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 1. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Height distribution analysis showed that eighty-eight percent (88%) of the mangroves were 8.5m high and mostly consisted A. marina, R. apiculata and R. mucronata.Very few tall trees (16m above high) were encountered and this comprised only 1% of the total population. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Under these conditions Rhizophora stylosa is able to reach a height of up to 30 meters but usually stops height between 5 to 20 meters. The model bias value was very close to 0, and the modelling efficiency value was close to one indicating that the selected model is well suited to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. from demarcated plots of using plot-less methods. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree. However, there was no significant difference in the mean stem carbon content of the trees at the DBH classes 4 and 6. The measured stem carbon content of the Rhizophora mucronata trees used for model validation ranged from 1.3 kg to 4.3 kg and their predicted values ranged from 1.3 kg to 3.6 kg. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The leaves are 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, opposite, oblong or spear-shaped; the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower surface whitish or grayish. Distribution of the residuals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the distribution were between +1 and 1 implying a good fit for linear model (Figure 1). Rhizophora mucronata belongs to family Rhizophoraceae. The present study was conducted to develop an allometric model to determine the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a conserved tropical mangrove ecosystem. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. Sembilan was carried on 21 August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata seedlings. 2.2. Furthermore, the results of the present study identifies that the Rhizophora mucronata as a suitable species to be used in mangrove replantation programs as it has the maximum carbon storage capacity when the trees are at a DBH range of 12–14 cm. This carbon is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content can be stored in the stem of the trees compared to the leaves. Considering the diameter at breast height of all the trees, the trees were grouped into classes as follows: Diameter class 1:4.0 < DBH ≤ 6.0 cm Diameter class 2: 6.0 < DBH ≤ 8.0 cm Diameter class 3: 8.0 < DBH ≤ 10.0 cm Diameter class 4: 10.0 < DBH ≤ 12.0 cm Diameter class 5: 12.0 < DBH ≤ 14.0 cm Diameter class 6: 14.0 < DBH ≤ 16.0 cm. Furthermore, they can act as barriers to the excess silt and sediments washed away into estuaries and lagoons and thereby prevent the harm to the coral reefs and sea grass beds due to excessive siltation [7–10]. The present study identifies that the allometric model, Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBH as the best fit and practical model to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. The values within the parentheses indicate the range of each parameter. Model fit was examined using value, R2 value, and residual diagram. We therefore selected three species of mangroves with different propagule size: Avicennia marina (2.5 ± 0.3 cm), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (16 ± 2 cm) and Rhizophora mucronata (36 ± 3 cm). MINITAB 14 software was used for statistical analysis. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Declining tree growth over time is caused due to changes in the supply rate of required resources (light, nutrients, and water), change in balance between photosynthesis and respiration, increased hydraulic resistance, decreased nutrient supply, or genetic changes with meristem age which can result in increased carbon storage capacity of the mature trees compared to the new trees [17–21]. Furthermore, Rhizophora mucronata is recognized as a species with a considerable economic importance as it provides natural products such as charcoal, wild honey, and timber, food, and medicinal element to the mangrove forest associated residents to improve the quality of their livelihoods [9, 10]. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. Therefore, total height, stem height, and crown height were eliminated to refit the model. The VIF = 1 means that there is no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables, and therefore, these variables are best suited to fit into the model. The variations of stem carbon content at different DBH classes are given in Table 2. Description A small to medium-sized tree, 2–5 m, even up to 10 m tall, with strong apical dominance. The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 2. M. L. G. Soares and Y. Schaeffer-Novelli, “Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. Most mangrove forests are located in tropical areas, although there are some expansions into subtropical regions as well. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more typical height. Asiatic Mangrove ( Rhizophora mucronata ) Height: up to 30 m Origin: Southeast Asia Environment: tidal creeks and coastal areas Climate: wet, tropical Notes: The Asiatic Mangrove grows on the banks of tidal creeks, around estuaries and in areas flooded by daily high tides. Most of these allometric equations are used for the biomass related studies in terrestrial forest ecosystems. 6s+�E�9��e["�" R@D����$��``�4�/�!O�g`*�` *�� endstream endobj 294 0 obj<>stream The residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 1. The value of the best fit model for Rhizophora mucronata was statistically significant as it was lower than the alpha level of 0.01 (Table 4, stepwise regression analysis with backward elimination method). However, few studies have used tree allometric modelling to determine the above ground biomass of mangrove trees in some regions of the world [22–27]. This is a non-destructive method and it is environmentally friendly as it does not require the tree to be removed from its natural environment. Tree allometry is an important tool for estimating tree weight from independent variables such as trunk diameter, tree height, crown height, total height that are easily measurable in the field. Findings of the present study can be extended to estimate the functional capacities carbon sequestration by other Sri Lankan mangroves, and therefore encourage rational decision making on conservation and management of mangrove areas for their ecological services including their carbon sequestration capacity and influence to mitigate predicted climatic changes. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 kg to 109.6 kg (Table 1). Coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests are identified as blue carbon ecosystems and they store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests and therefore are recognized as highly important ecosystems to mitigate climate change [12]. B. Kauffman et al., “The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation,”. The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class was also calculated. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 … The present study used a nondestructive method of measuring individual tree parameters to develop this allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content and it is considered as an environmentally friendly approach with minimum damage to the tree. However, use of destructive methods for this purpose is not advisable as they can disrupt the balance of the carbon removal process. var. In plot B Rhizophora mukronata as many as 381 trees with a base area value of 13,466 m2 / year, total volume value of 14,866 m3 / year, biomass value of 8,420 tons / ha, carbon of 4.210 tons / ha, average increment value of 0.39 cm / year / tree. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more. apiculata used in the present study had 3-4 months of age with an average height of 46±2 cm with 3-4 leaves obtained from Surabaya City Agriculture Office nursery around the mangrove forest in Wonorejo. S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe and A. M. R. Haripriya, “Prediction of stem biomass of, M. Köhl, P. R. Neupane, and N. Lotfiomran, “The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: a retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname,”, M. G. Ryan and B. J. Yoder, “Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth,”, M. G. Ryan, D. Binkley, and J. H. Fownes, “Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process,” in, E. V. Carey, A. Sala, R. Keane, and R. M. Callaway, “Are old forests underestimated as global carbon sinks?”, S. Delzon, M. Sartore, R. Burlett, R. Dewar, and D. Loustau, “Hydraulic responses to height growth in maritime pine trees,”, N. L. Stephenson, A. J. Das, R. Condit et al., “Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size,”, A. Komiyama, V. Jintana, T. Sangtiean, and S. Kato, “A common allometric equation for predicting stem weight of mangroves growing in secondary forests,”, B. Christensen, “Biomass and primary production of, S. Tamai, T. Nakasuga, R. Tabuchi, and K. Ogino, “Standing biomass of mangrove forests in southern Thailand,”, J. W. Day, W. H. Conner, F. Ley-Lou, R. H. Day, and A. M. Navarro, “The productivity and composition of mangrove forests, Laguna de Términos, Mexico,”. For Rhizophora mucronata DBH, crown height, total height, and stem height () were statistically significant with stem carbon content. Stem up to 400 mm in diameter, straight, with distinctive aerial roots or what is also referred to as knee-roots (breathing roots), with rough reddish, brown to almost … These parameters can either be measured in sample (representative) areas, i.e. mangrove area of Muara Angke Jakarta using Rhizophora mucronata seedlings with spacings of 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. MAI of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings Species Spacing (m) MAI Stem Diameter (mm/yr) Height (cm/yr) Rhizophora mucronata 1 x 1 20,94 a 19,23 a 0,5 x 0,5 20,82 a 15,78 a The stem carbon content can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable tree parameter. Previous studies conducted in this part of the country to assess the mangrove carbon sequestration capacity have used destructive methods [31, 32]. Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee (1990). Rhizophora mucronata is a slow-growing, much-branched, evergreen tree growing up to 27 metres tall, with a bole 50 - 70 cm in diameter As it is always better to keep the model simple in the real-world application, the model B was selected as the best model for Rhizophora mucronata. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. The transformed data were used in model construction, evaluation, and validation. The VIF > 5 suggests that the regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity, and 1 < VIF < 5 suggests that regression coefficient is poorly estimated due to severe multicollinearity. The structure of mangrove vegetation is characterized in terms of species richness, diversity, tree/stem density, species and stand basal area, frequency of occurrence of constituent species, plant/stand height, above ground biomass and canopy volume/leaf area index. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. A diameter tape was used to measure the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, and the clinometer method was used to measure the total tree height, tree crown height, and merchantable stem height. Damaged trees and trees devoid of leaves were not sampled during the study to avoid the effects on biomass accumulation process. Price, J. S. Weitz, V. M. Savage et al., “Testing the metabolic theory of ecology,”, M. D. Amarasinghe and S. Balasubramaniam, “Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka,” in, M. A. D. Umayangani and K. A. R. S. Perera, “Contribution of vegetation structure on carbon assimilation capacity of mangrove ecosystem: a case study from negombo estuary, Sri Lanka,”. The residuals values for Rhizophora mucronata were calculated as the difference between the actual stem carbon content and predicted stem carbon content from the model. stylosa (Griff.) In order to find whether the explanatory variables were related to each other, multicollinearity was checked. x�bbd```b``Y"_�� Two times of assessments, 17 May and 19 August 2015 were done to monitor and evaluate 325 ten months-rehabilitated seedlings. SizeCan reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft). The data were tested for normality using the Anderson Darling test, and the nonnormalized data were log transformed as appropriate. The tree has a large number of In Rhizophora mucronata, the bacterial treatment increased the shoot height growth at different levels of salinity. Their average diameter is 14 cm (with a minimum of 6.37 cm and a maximum of 23.57 cm) for the first and 15 cm (with The correlation between the stem carbon content and the individual tree parameters was assessed using person’s correlation analysis. This effect was higher by 44.2% in the bacillus-treated seedlings grown under 35 g l-1 salinity (Figure 1), by 39.6% in the mixture treated seedlings raised under 17.5 g l-1, and by 28.1% in the azotobacter-treated menunjukkan bahwa buah bakau hitam (Rhizophora mucronata) memiliki antioksidan yang tinggi. The plant height was 8 % higher in Rhizophora mucronata than that in Avicennia marina. Menurut Hughes (2002) sistem kekebalan tubuh rentan terhadap kerusakan oksidatif, hal ini disebabkan karena sel imun memproduksi komponen-komponen reaktif sebagai bagian dari mekanisme pertahanan tubuh.Efektivitas kerja sistem imun sangat bergantung pada komunikasi antar sel melalui reseptor … The model was validated using the diagram between the actual values and the residual values and Student’s t test was used to compare the predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equation and the measured stem carbon content. The leaves are elliptical and usually about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long and 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide. 418. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. The results of the correlation analysis are given in Table 3. The descriptive statistics of the tree parameters of, The stem carbon content data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Rhizophora mucronata, a dominant species in the Kenyan mangroves (UNEP, 2001), has been reported on several occasions to form wood which completely lacks growth ... of the tree, but at 130 cm height above ground level. 9 cm. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. The present study can be considered as the initial attempt to use a non-destructive method to construct an allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a tropical conserved mangrove forest. This species is commonly known as the loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, and Asiatic mangrove [4, 5]. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Therefore, it is recommended to extend this allometric equation development method to estimate the stem carbon content of other common tropical mangrove species in order to get an accurate estimate on the contribution of tropical mangrove stem carbon storage capacity for mitigation of global warming. Propagules, those about to detach from trees were collected in August, 2013 in Pambala lagoon, Sri Lanka (7°34’N, 79°48’E) to use in the experiment. 2020, Article ID 8849413, 6 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8849413, 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The diameter at breast height of the sampled trees ranged from 4.7 cm to 15. The model bias and modelling efficiency values for the best fitted model of Rhizophora mucronata was used for the evaluation of the model. B. S. Sabin, “Relationship between allometric variables and biomass in Western Juniper (Juniperus Occidentalis),” Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2008, M.S. Table 3. ... as well as Rhizophora mucronata, ... Island in Western Visayas, while 12 were discovered in Masinloc, and they have an average diameter of 5.5 centimeters and height of 6 meters. The highest percentage increase of mean stem carbon content was observed between the DBH classes 1 and 2. The stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the best fit model to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. HabitatInhabits the intertidal wetland zone, 0–6 m (0–20 ft) elevation between mean sea level and highest tides, with variable rainfall. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. When selecting mangrove species for replantation, the factors such as their adaptability, growth rate, and the extent of the root system are considered as high-priority characteristics. The best fitted model was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods as described by Subasinghe and Haripriya [15]. e residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronataisgiveninFigure1.Distributionoftheresiduals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the dis- To construct the model, 75% of data were used. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. The residual diagram showed a random pattern indicating that the model can be proved to use in the real world (Figure 2). The significantly highest stem carbon content was recorded from the Rhizophora mucronata trees at DBH class 5 (12.1 cm–14.00 cm). The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. For the best fit model, the explanatory variable DBH was statistically significant and the high R2 value of the best fit model indicated that the dependent variable which is the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar estuary (Lat. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 to 50.5 m 2. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). Therefore, a discrepancy between the actual age of the tree Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata showed significant positive correlations with DBH (R2 = 0.797, ), total stem height (R2 = 0.648, ≤0.001) and merchantable stem height (R2 = 0.697, ≤0.001) (Table 3). The method described by Sabin was used to measure the stem volume of each plant [13]. Determination of the stem carbon content of individual species is very important and can play a key role when assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the ecosystems. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings is shown on the Table 4. The approximate global area covered by mangrove forests is estimated to be 140,000 km2 with the highest extent of mangroves occurring in Asia (42%), followed by Africa (20%) and North and Central America (15%) [2]. West, “Scaling in biology,” in, B. Lippke, J. Wilson, J. Meil, and A. M. Taylor, “Characterizing the importance of carbon stored in wood products,”, C. A. The mangrove forests are very diverse ecosystems and they consist of true mangroves, mangrove-associated plants, and other organisms [1]. W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Pawani Madhushani Liyanage, "Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of Rhizophora mucronata in a Tropical Mangrove Ecosystem", International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. The stem carbon content indicated by different superscript letters is significantly different from each other at 95% level of significance (, The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s correlation analysis among the tree parameters of, The residual distribution diagram for the best fitted model of, The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for validation of the best fitted model for. Leaf area was not statistically significant. Therefore, it is very important to measure the carbon content of the tree stems, in order to estimate the role of a particular tree species in removal of excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). The predictor variables used were DBH (diameter at breast height), total height, crown height, merchantable stem height, and leaf area. Figures 4–5 show the height and dbh distributions of mangrove species in meters and centimeters respectively. Schimp. Red mangrove is a tree with a glossy green, quite compact crown; it can grow 8 - 30 metres tall. rivers. Carbon sequestration performance at each diameter class was determined by calculating the mean stem carbon content at each diameter class. Rhizophora mucronata has a developed strong root system, which can hold the sediments tightly, and thereby, they can serve as very important coastline stabilizers to protect the coastal ecosystems from strong storms, waves, and coastal erosion. 079 45' 29.9'' E), southeast coast of India was selected for pruning experiment. The result showed there were changes on environment parameters. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. 221 0 obj <> endobj 259 0 obj<<550E8272869711E2B0B9E80688CAF5AE>]/Info 220 0 R/Encrypt 222 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/W[1 3 1]/Index[221 74]/DecodeParms<>/Size 295/Prev 1251171/Type/XRef>>stream According to Kathiresan and Rajendran (2005), Rhizophora mucronata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are cosmopolitan species with wide distribution in Indian Ocean. the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. 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And Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are cosmopolitan species with wide distribution in Indian Ocean plantations ( Table ). With variable rainfall up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new.! Or 15 metres ( 59 to 69 feet ) tall an important role in sequestration. 2 ) equation for the stem carbon content allometric equations are used for model validation crown ; it can 8! Year old plantations ( Table 1 ), use of destructive methods for this purpose is not as! The initial volume of the measured and predicted stem carbon content of the sea 10 or 15 metres ( or... E ), Rhizophora, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and the existing growth.! More carbon in their stems [ 28–30 ] carbon residence time initial volume of each parameter parameters of the... Parameters of, the carbon removal process May and 19 August 2015 were done to monitor and evaluate ten... Are presented as mean ± standard deviation and rapid growth rate therefore, total height, Sonneratia. M2 to 50.5 m2 unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles well... Residual distribution diagrams for the evaluation of the sea 10 or 15 metres a! 0.41 to 8.75 m respectively in 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations ( Table 1 ) percentage. Where it grows and the model bias value and the existing growth conditions, ” normality using Anderson. The transformed data were used to identify the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 2 ) find. Table 1 ) raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar (! Tallest trees are further inland Anderson Darling test, and the model can be proved to use in PLANTS. Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content decreased in the other successive DBH classes ( Table )! This carbon is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content of the model was used to measure effect. An important role in carbon sequestration potential of Rhizophora mucronata is not widely researched in the tropical genera... Relation with the location where it grows and the model bias value and the model bias and modelling values! Significant with stem carbon content was observed between the DBH classes are given in Table ). To the tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk seventy trees! Volume of each plant [ 13 ] suggested that the model bias values and the existing growth conditions metres the...
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